Đảo ngữ (P1)
Trong tiếng Anh,một số trạng từ, cụm trạng từ phủ định phần lớn dùng với các ngữ cảnh phủ định.Những trạng từ, cụm trạng từ này có thể được nhấn mạnh bằng cách đặt ở đầu câu hay mệnh đề và theo sau là sự đảo ngược động từ. Cách đảo động từ giống như cách cấu tạo câu hỏi (trừ một số trường hợp đặc biệt). Sau đây là những loại câu nhấn mạnh dùng đảo ngữ trong tiếng Anh.
He is tall à I am, too= So am I
He isn’t tallà I am not, either = Neither am I
I don’t like himà Nor do I = Neither do I
I don’t like him, nor do I hate him: Tôi không thích anh ta và cũng không ghét anh ta
|I.||Đảo ngữ với NO và NOT.|
No + Noun + Auxiliary + S + Verb ( inf).
Not any + Noun + Auxiliary + S + Verb ( inf).
I won’t lend you any money from now on.
- Not any/No money will I lend you from now on.
Not a tear did she shed when the story ended in tragedy.
|II.||Đảo ngữ với các trạng từ phủ định NEVER ( không bao giờ, chưa bao giờ) , RARELY ( ít khi), SELDOM ( hiếm khi), LITTLE ( hầu như không), HARDLY EVER ( hầu như không bao giờ)|
Seldom + Auxiliary + S + verb ( inf) Little
She has never seen such a beautiful house in her life è Never in her life has she seen such a beautiful picture. I seldom listen to Rock music.
- Seldom do I listen to Rock music. He hardly ever speaks in the public.
- Hardly ever does he speak in the public.
There was no precedent for the King’s resignation.
- Never before had any King resigned.
This is the first time I have seen such an interesting film.
- Never before have I seen such an interesting film.
The way so much money has been spent on so little purpose must be a record.
- Never before has so much money been spent on so little purpose.
|III.||Đảo ngữ với ONLY:|
Only once ( chỉ một lần)
Only later ( chỉ sau này)
Only in this way ( chỉ bằng cách này)
Only in that way ( chỉ bằng cách đó)
Only then ( chỉ khi ấy) + Auxiliary + S + verb ( inf)
Only after + Noun/ V-ing/clause ( chỉ sau khi)
Only by + noun/ V-ing ( chỉ bằng cách)
Only when + clause ( chỉ khi)
Only if + clause ( chỉ nếu)
Only with + Noun ( chỉ với)
Only in + adverb of time/ place ( chỉ vào/ chỉ ở)
Only once have I met her
Only in this way can we succeed
Only then did I realize that I had left my purpose at home.
Only when I arrived at the airport, did I realize that I had left my passport at home.
Only after a twelve hour-wait, did my flight leave
Only after posting the letter, did I realize that I had forgotten to put on a stamp.
Only if you practice English at least 2 hours a day can you master it.
Only by practicing English at least 2 hours a day can you master it.
Only with a big sum of money can you buy a house in Hanoi.
Only in April is there this kind of flower.
|IV.||Đảo ngữ với các cụm giới từ có NO:|
At no time ( chưa từng bao giờ…)
On no account ( Với bất cứ lý do gì cũng không…) + Auxiliary+ S + Verb (inf)
On no condition ( tuyệt đối không…)
Under/In no circumstances (Trong bất kỳ hoàn cảnh nào cũng không…)
For no reason ( không vì lý do gì)
In no way ( không còn cách nào)
No longer ( không còn)
The outcome of the election was never in doubt.
- At no time was the outcome of the election in doubt.
You mustn’t touch the switch on any account.
- On no account must you touch the switch.
àFor no reason must you play truant.
He used to smoke 20 cigarettes a day.
àNo longer does he smoke 20 cigarettes a day. He never suspected that she was a witch.
àAt no time did he suspect that she was a witch.
The money is not to be paid under any circumstances.
àUnder no circumstances is the money to be paid.
Rewrite the sentence
- A country can’t be prosperous if it’s not quite independent.
Only when ________________________________________________________
- You can drive a car only after you obtain a driving licence.
Only after ________________________________________________________
- They had to wait for twelve hours before their flight left.
Only after a twelve hours wait________________________________________
- He never suspected that money had been stolen.
At no time ________________________________________________________
- He recognized that he had been deceived only later.
- I’ve never seen such a house .
- Our neighbour hasn’t once invited us into his home.
Not once ________________________________________________________
- You should phone the police whatever may happen.
Under no circumstances_____________________________________________
- We only dispatch goods after receiving the money.
Only after the money ________________________________________________
- I rarely buy any other papers .
- He never buys a paper without reading the whole thing .
Never does ________________________________________________________
- We seldom have enough time to read.
- She’ll hardly ever read the editorials.
- The outcome of the election was never in doubt.
At no time ________________________________________________________
- The demand was so great that they had to reprint the book immediately.
- You seldom find reunited twins who do not get on well together.
- There many reasons were for the choice. There ________________________
- A horse stood beside the roadside
19.You can make progress in English only by practising it everyday
- 20. I never have heard such an extraordinary story before Never before________________________________________
- Only when a country is independent can it be prosperous 2. Only after obtaining a driving license, can you drive a car
- Only after a twelve hours wait did their flight leave.
- At no time did he suspect that money had been stolen . 5. Only later did he recognize that he had been deceived
- Never have I seen such a house .
- Not once has our neighbor invited us into his home.
- Under no circumstances should you phone the police.
- Only after the money has been received will we dispatch
- Rarely do I buy any other papers.
- Never does he buy a paper without reading the whole thing . 12.Seldom do we have enough time to read
- Hardly will she ever read the editorials.
- At no time was the outcome of the election in doubt.
- So great was the demand that they had to reprint the book immediately.
- Seldom do you find reunited twins who do not get on well together.
- There were many reasons for the choice.
- Beside the roadside stood a horse.
- Only by practicing English everyday can you make progress in it.
- Never before have I heard such an extraordinary story.
|I.||Đảo ngữ với: No sooner …. Than;|
|Hardly||/ Barely/ Scarcely…. When/before ( Vừa mới ….thì…)|
No sooner + had + S + P2 + than + clause
Hardly/ Barely/ Scarcely + Auxiliary + S + V + when/before + clause I had no sooner arrived home than the phone rang.
à No sooner had I arrived home than the phone rang.
I had hardly arrived home when the phone rang.
àHardly had I arrived home when the phone rang.
1/ He got down to writing the letter as soon as he returned from his walk.
No sooner had he returned from his walk than He got down to writing the letter 2/She just had time to put up her umbrella before the rain came down in torrents. No sooner had she put up her umbrella than the rain came down in torrents 3/She had hardly begun to speak before people started interrupting her.
Hardly had she begun to speak when people started interrupting her 4/ Someone rang the alarm as soon as the burglars left the building.
No sooner had the burglars left the building than Someone rang the alarm.
5/ Tear gas was released as soon as the thieves touched the safe.
No sooner had the thieves touched the safe than Tear gas was released 6/ Immediately after his appointment to the post, the new editor fell ill. No sooner had he been appointment to the post than the editor fell ill7/ I had hardly put the phone down when the boss rang back.
Hardly had I put the phone down when the boss rang back.
8/ She had hardly begun her performance when the light went out.
No sooner had she begun her performance than the light went out.
|Not until/till + Clause + Au + S + V Then/later/ Adv of time|
|He couldn’t speak until he was|
Not until/till ( then/ later)
à Not until he was 8, could he speak = It was not until he was 8 that he could speak.
Not until I got home, did I know that I had lost my keys
= It was not until I got home that I knew that I had lost my keys
He forgot about the gun until he got to the police station.
Not until he got to the Police Station, did he remember about the gun.
He didn’t return to his country until last June.
Not till did he return to his country until last June
|III.||Đảo ngữ với NOWHERE|
Nowhere + Auxi + S + V
You won’t find a more dedicated worker anywhere than Mrs Jones.
àNowhere will you find a more dedicated worker than Mrs Jones.
Nowhere can you find your wallet.
Nowhere in the world is the climate as rough as that in the North Pole.
Nowhere do I feel as comfortable as I do at home.
|IV.||Đảo ngữ với SO và SUCH:|
a/ Đảo ngữ với SO: So + adj/adv + Au + S + that + clause He worked so hard that he forgot his lunch.
àSo hard did he work that he forgot his lunch.
The play is so popular that the theatre is likely to be full every night.
àSo popular is the play that the theatre is likely to be full every night. It is so hot that you can fry an egg on the pavement. àSo hot is it that you can fry an egg on the pavement
Her grief was so great that she almost fainted.
àSo great was her grief that she almost fainted
b/ Đảo ngữ với SUCH: Such + Be + Noun + that + clause The play is so popular that the theatre is likely to be full every night.
àSuch is the popularity of the play that the theatre is likely to be full every night.
She is so beautiful that I can’t take my eyes off her.
àSuch is her beauty that I can’t take my eyes off her.
Her grief is so great that she almost fainted.
à Such is her grief that she almost fainted.
He was so intelligent that he could answer all the questions in “ Who wants to become a millionaire?”
àSuch was his intelligence that he could answer all the questions in “ Who wants to become a millionaire?”
|V.||Đảo ngữ trong câu điều kiện (Inversion in Conditional Sentences)|
Trong câu điều kiện ta chỉ thực hiện đảo ngữ ở mệnh đề với If (If clause). Với mỗi loại câu điều kiện, ta có từng cách đảo ngữ riêng.
- Đảo ngữ trong câu điều kiện loại I (type I)
If+S +(should)+ V . . . à Should + S + Vinfinitive …
If he comes, I’ll call the police
Should he come, I’ll call the police
- Đảo ngữ trong câu điều kiện loại II (type II).
- Câu có động từ “to be”: If + S + were … à Were + S …
If I were you, I wouldn’t do that. Were I you, I wouldn’t do that.
- Câu dùng động từ thƣờng: If + S + Ved/irregular verb à Were + S + to Vinfinitive ….
If I knew Portuguese, I’d speak to Ronando.
Were I to know Portuguese, I’d speak to Ronando.
- Câu điều kiện loại III (type III) If + S + had Ved2 …. à Had + S + P2 …. If I hadn’t seen it with my own eyes, I wouldn’t have believed it. Had I not seen it with my own eyes, I wouldn’t have believed it.
Notes: Với những câu điều kiện phủ định, khi đảo ngữ ta để NOT sau chủ ngữ.
- Đảo ngữ sau các cụm trạng từ chỉ phƣơng hƣớng và vị trí: ( Inversion after adverbial phrases of direction and place)
Khi câu bắt đầu bằng một cụm trạng từ, đặc biệt là trạng từ chỉ phương hướng và vị trí thì nội động từ thường được đảo lên trước chủ ngữ. Cách đảo ngữ này được sử dụng đặc biệt trong văn phong trang trọng. ( formal) hoặc văn chương ( literary)
` (Place) + V + S
Here comes the train
Above the fireplace was a portrait of Lenin.
On the table sat the cat
Up went the price
In an armchair sat his mother.
- Động từ TO BE thường được sử dụng trong dạng đảo ngữ này, ngoài ra ta còn dùng các động từ chuyển động như” climb, come, fly,go, hang, lie, run, sit, stand…
- Thường chỉ dùng dạng đảo ngữ này khi động từ ở thì quá khứ đơn giản.
- Trong trường hợp đảo ngữ này, không sử dụng trợ động từ như trong câu hỏi mà dùng trực tiếp động từ đặt trước chủ ngữ.
- Không thực hiện đảo ngữ khi chủ ngữ là đại từ.
- Không dùng : In an armchair s at she.
* Emphasizing form:
Come in, please àDo come in, please.
I went out last night à I did go out last night.
It is/ was + Emphatic part + that + clause + Verb
Shakespeare wrote Hamlet àIt was Shakespeare that wrote Hamlet.
Turn the following into inverted sentences 1. The matter could be explained in no other way.
- We had hardly started when it began to rain.
- I have seldom heard such beautiful singing.
- I shall never forget your kindness.
- I saw only then the danger we were in.
- We had no sooner left the house than it exploded.
- He didn’t realize that he had lost the key till he got home.
- They not only robbed you, they smashed everything.
- Half a dozen apples fell down.
- If an emergency should arise, dial 999.
- If Rex were a little more hard-working, he would not fail.
- If Mr Chan had been kinder to his employees, his business would not have collapsed.
- She had never been so disappointed before.
- I have never known such a generous person.
- I have never seen such a mess in my life.
- Public borrowing has seldom been so high.
- They had seldom participated in such a fascinating ceremony.
- They little suspected that the musical was going to be a runaway success.
- The embassy staff little realized that Ted was a secret agent.
- I had hardly begun to apologize when the door closed.
- The shop can in no way be held responsible for customers’ lost property.
- The couple had no sooner arrived than the priest started the ceremony.
- Tom only understood the meaning of the comment when he saw his wife’s face.
- The restaurant cannot accept animals under any circumstances.
- The artist rarely paid any attention to his agent’s advice.
- He bought so many books that he couldn’t read them all.
- It was such a boring speech that I got sleepy.
- In no way could the matter be explained.
- Hardly had we started when it began to rain.
- Seldom have I heard such beautiful singing.
- Never shall I forget your kindness.
- Only after the danger did I see we were in.
- No sooner had we left the house than it exploded.
- Not until he got home did he realize that he had lost the key.
- Not only did they rob you, they smashed everything.
- Down fell haft a dozen apples.
- Should an emergency arise, dial 999.
- Were Rex a little more hardworking, he would not fail.
- Had Mr Chan been kinder to his employees, his business would not have collapsed Never had she been so disappointed before.
- Never have I known such a generous person.
- Never have I seen such a mess in my life.
- Seldom has public borrowing been so high.
- Seldom had they participated in such a fascinating ceremony.
- Little did they suspect that the musical was going to be a runaway success.
- Little did the embassy staff realize that Ted was a secret agent.
- Hardly had I begun to apologize when the door closed.
- In no way can the shop be held responsible for customers’ lost property.
- No sooner had the couple arrived than the priest started the ceremony.
- Only when Tom saw his wife’s face did he understand the meaning of the comment.
- Under no circumstances can the restaurant accept animals.
- Rarely did the artist pay any attention to his agent’s advice.
- So many books did he buy that he couldn’t read them all.
- Such was a boring speech that I got sleepy.