Phần XIV. Gỉa định cách

Image result for câu giả điÌ£nhBài 1

  1. Tóm tắt lý thuyết
  2. “Wish” sentence
  3. Wish + to do / wish somebody something / wish somebody to do something.

I wish to pass the entrance exam.

I wish you happy birthday.

I wish you to become a good teacher. Chú ý: trong trường hợp này, chúng ta có thể thay thế “wish” bằng “want” hoặc “would like” I would like / want to speak to Ann.

Câu mơ ước phải lùi một thì

 

  1. Wish (that)+ subject + past tense : thể hiện sự nuối tiếc trong hiện tại, điều không có thật ở hiện tại I don’t know the answer. I wish I knew the answer.

I wish I knew his address. (thật ra tôi không biết địa chỉ của anh ta) I wish I had a car.  I wish I were rich.

Chú ý: trong câu “wish” không có thật ở hiện tại, dùng “were” nếu là động từ tobe cho tất cả các ngôi.

 

  1. Wish (that) + subject + past perfect: thể hiện sự tiếc nuối trong quá khứ I didn’t go to his party. I wish I had gone to his party.

I wish I hadn’t spent so much money.(sự thực là tôi đã tiêu rất nhiều tiền)

I wish I had seen the film last night. (sự thực là tôi không xem phim tối qua)

 

  1. A + wish (that) + B + would do something: phàn nàn hoặc muốn thay đổi tình huống hiện tại ( A, B là hai người khác nhau)

I wish they would stop making noise.

I wish it would stop raining hard in summer.

I wish she could meet me next week.

 

  1. “If only” sentence: giá như…..
  2. If only + present tense / future tense: diễn tả hi vọng trong tương lai If only he comes in time = we hope he will come in time.

If only he will listen to her = we hope he will be willing to listen to her.

 

  1. If only + simple past: diễn đạt hành động không có thật ở hiện tại If only there were snow in summer. We could go skiing. If only he would join our party.

 

  1. If only + past perfect: diễn đạt hành động không có thật ở quá khứ

If only the Bush government hadn’t spead war in Irak, million people there wouldn’t have been killed.

  1. If only ….would do….= person A wish person B would do something

You are driving too dangerously. If only you would drive slowly

= I wish you would drive slowly

  1. “As if/as though” sentence
  2. As if/as though + simple past: diễn đạt hành động không có thật ở hiện tại

It’s very cold today. It looks as if/as though it were autumn now.(thực ra bây giờ đang là mùa hè) He isn’t my father. He is talking as if he were my father.

 

  1. As if/as though + past perfect: diễn đạt hành động không có thật ở quá khứ

The whole were seriously damaged. It looks as if it had been destroyed by bombs. (thực ra đó là do động đất)

He talked as if he had gone to London.

 

  1. As if/as though + present tense: mô tả hành động có thật

It looks as if it is going to rain. (Trông trời như sắp mưa) He appears running from a fierce dog.

–> It looks as if he is running from a fierce dog.

 

  1. Other subjunctive structures
  • It’s time somebody did something: đã đến lúc ai đó phải làm gì ở hiện tại.

The exam is coming. It’s time they worked hard.

Chúng ta có thể dùng cấu trúc “It’s high time somebody did something” để nhấn mạnh hơn ý muốn nói.

It’s high time we started.

It was time sb had done

Ví dụ: It was time they had left for their office.

  • Person A would rather person B did something: đề nghị ai đó một cách lịch sự ở hiện tại A: Would you mind if I smoke?

B: I’d rather you didn’t smoke.

I ‘d rather you didn’t talk in class now. would rather sb had done sth:

I’d rather they had prepared more food last week.

 

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES – SUBJUNCTIVE

Type 2, 3, Mixed

I work at night, so I can’t attend evening classes.

If I didn’t work at night, I could attend evening classes.

I didn’t catch the plane. I didn’t meet him there.

If I had caught the plane, I would have met him there.

I didn’t change my job. I am poor now.

If I had changed my job, I would be rich now.

That  Should

It + be + adj + that + sb + (should) do It + be + adj + that + sth + be + done

 

  • Một số tính từ đòi hỏi mệnh đề sau nó phải ở dạng giả định, trong câu bắt buộc phải có that và động từ sau chủ ngữ 2 ở dạng nguyên thể bỏ to: advised, necessary, recommended, important, obligatory / mandatory (bắt buộc), required, imperative (=vital: quan trọng), proposed, suggested, important / crucial / essential / vital (quan trọng), urgent, desirable It is necessary that he find the books.

It was urgent that she leave at once.

It has been suggested that income tax be abolished. It has been proposed that we change the topic.

Lưu ý: Nếu muốn cấu tạo phủ định đặt not sau chủ ngữ 2 trước nguyên thể bỏ to.

It is necessary that he not find the books.

It has been proposed that we not change the topic.

Nếu bỏ that đi thì chủ ngữ 2 sẽ biến thành tân ngữ sau giới từ for, động từ trở về dạng nguyên thể có to và câu mất tính chất giả định trở thành dạng mệnh lệnh thức gián tiếp. 

It is necessary for him to find the books.

It is necessary for him not to find the books.

 

  1. Tài liệu đọc thêm

Dùng với động từ.

Bảng sau là những động từ đòi hỏi mệnh đề sau nó phải ở dạng giả định và trong câu bắt buộc phải có that trong trường hợp đó.

advise ask Command decree
demand insist Move order
prefer stipulate Recommend request
require propose Suggest urge

 

Động từ sau chủ ngữ 2 ở dạng nguyên thể không chia bỏ to. Nếu muốn thành lập thể phủ định đặt not sau chủ ngữ 2 trước nguyên thể bỏ to.

 

Subject + verb + that + S + [verb in simple form]

 

  • Thí dụ:

The doctor suggested that his patient stop smoking.

The doctor suggested that his patient not stop smoking.

+ WE DEMAND THAT HE DO IT.

+ THE PRESIDENT REQUESTS THAT YOU BE PRESENT AT THE MEETING.

Trong ngữ pháp Anh-Anh trước động từ ở mệnh đề 2 thường có should, người Anh chỉ bỏ should khi sau nó là động từ to be.

 

Lưu ý:

  • Câu giả định dùng với 2 loại trên thường được dùng trong các văn bản hoặc thư giao dịch diễn đạt lời đề nghị từ phía A -> B mà không có tính bắt buộc.
  • Không chỉ có động từ và tính từ mới được dùng theo dạng này, tất cả các danh từ xuất phát từ những động từ và tính từ trên đều buộc mệnh đề sau nó phải ở dạng giả định, nếu như nó diễn đạt các yếu tố trên. There is suggestion from the doctor that the patient stop smoking.

It is recommendationthat the vehicle owner be present at the court

 

* Những động từ có thể dùng SUBJUNCTIVE đằng sau hoặc có thể dùng trong cấu trúc ” Động từ + Đại từ tân ngữ + Động từ nguyên mẫu có TO “: ASK, ORDER, REQUIRE, URGE

– Thí dụ:

+ WE ASK THAT SHE BE PRESENT.

+ WE ASK HER TO BE PRESENT.

 

Question 30: It is imperative ______ what to do when there is a fire.

  1. he must know about B. that everyone know C. that he knew            D. we knew

Trong câu có tính từ imperative nằm trong danh sách các từ dùng hiện tại giả định nên mệnh đề đi sau dùng should + nguyên mẫu hoặc nguyên mẫu. Tương tự như câu:

It’s necessary that this parcel BE CHECKED before delivering.

NECESSARY nằm trong cụm giả định “obligatory, proposed, required, advised, suggested, necessary, recommended, mandatory, important, imperative, mandatory, proposed, suggested” nên sau nó phải là BARE INF (1 dạng rất hay cho trong đề ĐH)

 

III. Bài về nhà

Exercise 1.Fill in the blanks below with the correct form of the verb in parentheses. Negative, passive and continuous subjunctive forms are possible. 

  1. It’s important that she (remember) to take her medicine twice a day.
  2. I suggest that Frank (read) the directions carefully before assembling the bicycle. He doesn’t want the wheels to fall off while he is riding down a hill
  3. Finkelstein demanded that the heater (repair) immediately. Her apartment was freezing.
  4. It’s vital that the United States (focus) on improving its public education system. What we do now will affect our country for generations to come.
  5. The monk insisted that the tourists (enter) the temple until they had removed their shoes.
  6. I am not going to sit here and let her insult me. I demand that she immediately (apologize) for what she just said.
  7. Judy asked that we (attend) her graduation ceremony next week.
  8. Was it really necessary that (sit) I there watching you the entire time you were rehearsing for the play? It was really boring watching you repeat the scenes over and over again.
  9. It is important to remember that Janine (think) very differently from you. She may not agree to the changes you have made in the organization of the company.
  10. It’s a little difficult to find the restaurant. I propose that we all (drive) together so that nobody gets lost along the way.
  11. The woman insisted that the lost child (take) to store’s information desk so his parents could be paged.
  12. The nutritionist recommended that Sally (reduce) her daily fat intake.
  13. The environmental leader felt it was extremely important that the people of the city (allow) to voice their concerns over the new hotel being built on the bay.
  14. She told me that the government (regulate) the airline industry. I don’t know if that is true.
  15. The sign at the pool recommended that you (swim) after eating a large meal.
  16. It is necessary that a life guard (monitor) the summing pool while the children are taking their swimming lessons.
  17. The sun is scorching today. I suggest you (put) on sunblock immediately before you get a sun burn.
  18. John insists that Sarah (invite) to the wedding; otherwise he will not attend.
  19. I think it’s an interesting fact that she (come) from Estonia.
  20. It is imperative that the world (work) towards a solution to global warming before the weather patterns of the world are disrrupted irreparably.

Exercise 2.Fill in the blanks below with the correct form of the verb in parentheses. 

  1. Alice didn’t get a good grade. She wishes she (work) …………. harder.
  2. Tom likes football very much. He wishes he (become) …………. a professional football player.
  3. He was running very fast when he had a heart attack. If only he (not/run)……. so fast.
  4. She’s keen on computers. She wishes she (study)….. computer science next school year. 5. I am sorry I don’t know how to use the computer. If only I (know) …….. how to use it. 6. I stayed late at work and missed the last bus. I wish I (stay) ……… at work late
  5. I wish I ……. (talk) to him yesterday.
  6. I need help badly. If only you ……….(can) help me.
  7. My old car often breaks down. I wish I ………..(buy) a new car.
  8. He didn’t pass the exam. If only he ……….(work) hard.
  9. She was absent. I wish she (attend)………. the conference.
  10. What a beautiful house! I wish I ………..(have) a house like this one.
  11. I wish I …….. (be) rich. I would buy a farm and enjoy the calm of the countryside.
  12. They had that bad accident because they were careless. If only they…….(be) more careful.
  13. We saw the film. I wish you ………. (see) it with us. It was an amazing evening.
  14. I like traveling around the world. If only I ………. (have) time to realize my dream.

 

KEY

Exercise 1.

  1. remember                         2. read                        3. be repaired              4. focus
  2. not enter                          6.  apologize               7. attend                      8. be sitting
  3. thinks 10. drive                     11. be taken                12. reduce
  4. be allowed 14. regulates               15. not swim               16. monitor
  5. put 18. be invited              19. comes                    20. work

Hướng dẫn một số câu khó:

Question 5 Explanation:

Trong câu giả định với động từ ”insist” , mệnh đề phải ở dạng giả định, bắt buộc có that và động từ sau chủ ngữ 2 ở dạng nguyên thể bỏ “to”.Ở dạng phủ định là ”not” + V nguyên thể không có ” to” Question 8 Explanation:

Trong câu giả định, sau các tính từ ”necessary”, mệnh đề phải ở dạng giả định, bắt buộc có” that ” và động từ sau chủ ngữ 2 ở dạng nguyên thể bỏ “to”. Trong câu mệnh đề biểu thị tiếp diễn thì theo cấu trúc : ”It’s + adj + that + S2 + be + V-ing”.

Question 9 Explanation:

Câu giả định với tính từ ” important” loại bỏ ” that” nên động từ sau chủ ngữ hai phải chia theo chủ ngữ chính trong câu, mà chủ ngữ chính trong câu là ngôi thứ 3 số ít nên động từ không thể chia dạng nguyên thể.

Question 12 Explanation:

It’s + N phrase (a/an + adj + N) + that clause (S2 + V2 + O), thì đông từ 2 được chia theo chủ ngữ 2. Đây không phải cấu trúc giả định.

Exercise 2.

  1. had worked 2. became 3. hadn’t run               4. studied
  2. knew 6. had not stayed 7.  had talked               8.  could
  3. bought 10.  had worked                      11.  had attended        12.  had
  4. were 14. had been                          15.  had seen               16.  had

 

 

Ôn tập

  1. Bài tập

Ex. 1: Present Subjunctive

Choose the most appropriate answer.

  1. I demand that he …………… immediately.
  2. apologize B. shall apologize        C. will apologize                     D. has apologized
  3. I suggested that she …………… her lawyer before signing the contract.
  4. consults B. shall consult            C. will consult                         D. should consult
  5. It is necessary that everything …………… ready by two o’clock tomorrow.
  6. be B. was                         C. were                                    D. would have been
  7. They recommend that she …………… to a ski resort in Spain.
  8. will go B. would have gone  C. should go                             D. should have gone
  9. It is advisable that you …………… your application as soon as possible.
  10. submit B. will submit              C. will have submitted     D. should have submitted
6. He decided to go inside the haunted house, ……………what may.  
A. come                       B. comes                     C. should come

7. It is strange that he  so upset about such a trifle, isn’t it?

D. would come
A. were                        B. shall be                   C. should be

8. The doctor insisted that she …………… at the hospital.

D. have been
A. stay                          B. stays                        C. will stay D. has stayed
  1. She suggested that we …………… in the lobby of the hotel at 9:00 a.m.
A. shall meet               B. will meet                 C. should meet

Ex. 2: Conditionals

Choose the most appropriate answer.

1. I like this coat. If it ……………cheaper, I would buy it.

  D. would have met  
A. is                              B. would be                 C. were

2. If I …………… you, I would call him.

  D. had been  
A. am                           B. would be                 C. were

3. She would write to him if she ………… his address.

  D. had been  
A. knows                      B. would know             C. knew

4. Even if I had enough money, I ………… buy this car.

  D. had known  
A. could                       B. might                      C. would   D. would not  
5. What would happen if someone ………… this button accidentally?  
A. will press                 B. would press                        C. pressed

6. What would you do if you ………… a million dollars?

D. had pressed
A. have                        B. had                                      C. had had

7. If I had a bicycle, I ………… for a ride with you.

D. would have
A. can go                     B. could go                              C. could have gone

8. I hope she ………… mind if I stayed here.

D. would have gone
A. doesn’t                     B.  won’t                                  C. wouldn’t

9. ………… Mrs. Green call, tell her I’ll be back around four o’clock.

D. would
A. Could                       B. Might                                  C. Should

10. She would be disappointed if we ………… her a present.

D. Would
A. won’t bring              B. wouldn’t bring                     C. didn’t bring

 

Ex. 3: Conditionals

Choose the most appropriate answer.

1. If I ………… her telephone number, I would have called her.

D. hadn’t brought
A. knew                        B. had known              C. would know

2. If he ………… harder, he would have passed his exams.

D. would have known
A. studied                    B. had studied              C. would study

3. If he ………… us, we wouldn’t have finished our work so quickly.

D. would have studied
A. hasn’t helped           B. didn’t help               C. hadn’t helped D. wouldn’t help
  1. If I ………… enough money, I could have stayed at a five-star hotel during my vacation.
  2. had B. had had                   C. would have                         D. would have had
  3. If you had asked him, he ………… able to help you.
  4. was B. had been                 C. would be                             D. would have been
  5. They ………… for a picnic yesterday if the weather had been warmer.
  6. would go B. would have gone  C. went                                     D. had gone
  7. It ………… if he had been more attentive.
  8. did not happen B. had not happened  C. would not happen  D. wouldn’t have happened
  9. If he hadn’t been so busy at work last week, he …………more time with his children.
  10. may spend B. might spend            C. could spend                         D. could have spent
  11. We were terribly late. If we had taken a taxi instead of a bus, we ………… on time.
  12. could arrive B. may arrive              C. might arrive                       D. might have arrived
  13. ………… I known his true intentions, I would not have allowed him to stay in my house.
  14. Have B. Had                         C. Should                                 D. Were

Ex. 4: Wishes

Choose the most appropriate answer.

1. He likes to swim. He wishes he . ………… near the sea.  
A. lives                         B. lived                        C. had lived

2. It’s cold today. I wish it . ………… warmer.

D. would live
A. is                             B. has been                 C. were

3. I wish I . …………  the answer, but I don’t.

D. had been
A. know                        B. knew                       C. had known

4. She wishes she . ………… blue eyes.

D. would know
A. has                           B. had                          C. had had

5. She wishes she . ………… a movie star.

D. would have
A. is                             B. were                        C. will be D. would be
  1. I have to work on Sunday. I wish I . ………… have to work on Sunday.
A. don’t                        B. didn’t                       C. won’t

7. I wish you . …………borrow my things without permission.

D. wouldn’t
A. don’t                        B. won’t                       C. shouldn’t

8. He wishes he . ………… buy a new car.

D. wouldn’t
A. could                       B. might                       C. should

9. She misses him. She wishes he . ………… her a letter.

D. would
A. has sent                   B. will send      C. would send  10. I wish I . ………… help you. D. would have sent
A. can                          B. could                       C. will D. would

Ex. 5: Wishes

Choose the most appropriate answer.

  1. She didn’t come to his birthday party yesterday. He wishes she .…………
  2. has come B. came                       C. had come                D. would come
  3. I said that her cooking was terrible. I wish I ………… that.
  4. didn’t say B. hadn’t said               C. wouldn’t say           D. wouldn’t have said
  5. Her new car consumes a lot of gas. She wishes she ………… a different car.
  6. has bought B. bought                    C. had bought              D. would buy
  7. Their trip to China was very interesting. I wish I …………there with them.
  8. could go B. might go                 C. had gone                 D. might have gone
  9. Our picnic was a lot of fun. I wish the weather ………… warmer, though.
  10. was B. were                        C. had been                 D. would have been
  11. He enjoyed talking to them. He wished they ………… so quickly.
  12. left B. had left                   C. did not leave           D. had not left
  13. Several companies had vacancies for college graduates. He wished he …………to college.
  14. went B. was going               C. had gone                 D. had been going
  15. They disagree on everything and fight all the time. They wish they ………… married.
A. didn’t get                 B. hadn’t got                C. wouldn’t get

9. He didn’t visit her yesterday, but he wishes he ………….

D. wouldn’t have got
A. has                           B. did                           C. had

10. He did it again, but I wish he ………….

D. would
A. hasn’t                       B. didn’t                       C. hadn’t D. wouldn’t

Ex. 6: Real or Unreal

Real or unreal? Indicative Mood or Subjunctive Mood? Choose the most appropriate answer.

  1. They treat her as if she ………… their daughter.
  2. is B. was                         C. were                        D. has been
  3. Take an umbrella. It looks as if it …………rain.
  4. is going to B. was going to           C. were going to         D. might be
  5. She described that place as if she ………… it before.
  6. visited B. has visited               C. had visited              D. were visiting
  7. Would you like to go to the cinema tonight? – Well, I’d rather………… a new TV show.
  8. watch B. watched                  C. had watched           D. would watch
  9. It is time you ………… a better job.
  10. find B. found                       C. had found                D. would find
  11. It’s high time he ………… smoking.
  12. stop B. stops                       C. stopped                   D. had stopped
  13. I’m going shopping. If I ………… enough money left, I’ll buy a couple of toys for you.
  14. have B. had                          C. have had                 D. had had
  15. If I ………… a chance to see her again, maybe I could explain everything.
  16. have B. had                          C. have had                 D. had had
  17. If only I ………… how to find her now!
  18. know B. knew                       C. had known               D. would know
  19. Suppose he ………… elected last year. Do you think he would have approved this project?
  20. was B. were                        C. has been                 D. had been

 

  1. Bài về nhà

Exercise 1.

Part A. Use the word “that” to begin a clause after the verb.

Examples: I asked them to be quiet.   /   The thief told her to give him the money.

I asked that they be quiet.  /  The thief demanded that she give him the money.

  1. She asked him to fix the computer.

She requested _______________________________________________.

  1. Sandra wanted the post office to hold onto her mail.

Sandra asked _______________________________________________.

  1. The judge told the lawyer to be quiet.

The judge insisted ___________________________________________.

  1. My supervisor said it would be a good idea for me to accept this new position.

My supervisor suggested ______________________________________.

  1. “He should fix it himself,” I said.

I suggested _________________________________________________.

Part B. Change each command to a sentence that uses the subjunctive mood in the clause following the verb.

  1. “Give me a refund,” John told the clerk.

John demanded _________________________________________________. 7. “Could you help me move some boxes,” Tom asked me.

Tom requested __________________________________________________.

  1. ” Can you work this weekend?” Sue’s boss asked. (Sue is a woman.) Sue’s boss asked _________________________________________________.
  2. “Stop drinking so much!” Bill’s wife told him.

Bill’s mother demanded ____________________________________________.

  1. “Take a vacation,” our boss told us.

Our boss insisted _________________________________________________.

Exercise 2. Choose the correct answer for each question.

  1. 1. I don’t understand this point of grammar. I wish I ______ it better.
  2. understood B. would understand               C. had understood
  3. It never stops raining here. I wish it ______ raining.
  4. stopped B. would stop                         C. had stopped
  5. I should never have said that. I wish I ______ that.
  6. didn’t say B. wouldn’t say                       C. hadn’t said
  7. I miss my friends. I wish my friends ______ here right now.
  8. were B. would be C. had been
  9. I speak terrible English. I wish I ______ English well.
  10. spoke B. would speak C. had spoken
  11. I cannot sleep. The dog next door is making too much noise. I wish it ______ quiet.
  12. kept B. would keep            C. had kept
  13. This train is very slow. The earlier train was much faster. I wish I ______ the earlier train.
  14. caught B. would catch C. had caught
  15. I didn’t see the TV programme but everybody said it was excellent. I wish I ______ it.
  16. saw B. would see                            C. had seen
  17. I went out in the rain and now I have a bad cold. I wish I ______ out.
  18. didn’t go B. wouldn’t go                        C. hadn’t gone
  19. This movie is terrible. I wish we ______ to see another one.
  20. went B. would go C. had gone
  21. I hate living in England. It’s cold and it’s damp. I wish I ______ in Spain.
  22. lived B. would live                          C. had lived
  23. I love California. I wish I ______ there right now.
  24. were B. would be                             C. had been
  25. My car is too small. I wish I ______ a bigger one.
  26. had B. would have                         C. had had
  27. I was only in Miami for a week. I wish I ______ more time there but I had to go on to New York.
  28. had B. would have                         C. had had
  29. My face is bright red. I wish I ______ in the sun so long yesterday.
  30. didn’t sit B. wouldn’t sit                        C. hadn’t sat
  31. It was supposed to be a secret. I wish you ______ him.
  32. didn’t tell B. wouldn’t tell C. hadn’t told
  33. They didn’t offer me the job. I wish they ______ it to me.
  34. offered B. would offer                        C. had offered
  35. You’re always moaning about something or other. I wish you ______
  36. shut up B. would shut up C. had shut up
  37. I hate having red hair. I wish I ______ blonde hair.
  38. had B. would have                         C. had had
  39. This exercise is very boring. I wish the teacher ______ us some more interesting things to do.
  40. gave B. would give                         C. had given

 

 

 

KEY

Exercise 1.

Part A. 

  1. She requested that he fix the computer.
  2. Sandra asked that the post office hold onto her mail.
  3. The judge insisted that the lawyer be quiet.
  4. My supervisor suggested that I accept this new position.
  5. I suggested that he fix it himself.

Part B. 

  1. John demanded that the clerk give him a refund.
  2. Tom requested that I help him move some boxes.
  3. Sue’s boss asked that she work this weekend.
  4. Bill’s mother demanded that he stop drinking so much.
  5. Our boss insisted that we take a vacation.

Exercise 2.

  1. A 2. B    3. C      4. A      5. A      6. B      7. C      8. C      9. C                10. C 11. A 12. A 13. A
  2. C 15. C 16. C 17. C 18. B 19. A 20. B

 

 

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