Câu trực tiếp- câu dán tiếp

Bài 1

I. Definition:
  1. Lời nói trực tiếp:
    • là sự lặp lại chính xác những từ của người nói.
    • được đặt trong dấu ngoặc kép và sau động từ chính có dấu phẩy(,) hoặc dấu hai chấm(:). Đôi khi mệnh đề chính cũng có thể đặt sau lời nói trực tiếp. She said: “I have never been to Paris”
  2. Lời nói gián tiếp (indirect/reported speech)
    • là lời tường thuật lại ý của người nói, đôi khi không cần phải dùng đúng những từ của người nói.

She said that she had never been to Paris.

He said to me: “ I like your hair”  He said that he liked my hair.

He said to her “ I like your hair” He told her that he liked her hair.

II. Quy tắc chuyển trực tiếp sang gián tiếp

Muốn chuyển lời nói trực tiếp sang gián tiếp, ta cần lưu ý những điểm sau:

  1. Thayđổi S (đại từ nhân xưng làm chủ ngữ) , O (tân ngữ) , Possessive Adjectives (tính từ sở hữu) cho phù hợp .
  2. Thay đổi động từ: Thì của các động từ trong lời nói gián tiếp thay đổi theo một nguyên tắc chung là lùi về quá khứ (các thì xuống cấp)
Modal Direct speech Repored speech 
can

may

“I can do it.”

He said he could do it.

May I go out?”

He wanted to know if he might go out.

must
“She must apply for the job.”

He said that she must/had to apply for the job.

will “They will call you.” He tod her that they would call her.

 

 

Direct Speech 
Simple Present He said: “I am happy”
 

Reported Speech

 

 

Simple Past

He said that he was happy

 

 

Present Progressive Past Progressive
He said: “I‘m looking for my keys” He said that he was looking for his keys
Simple Past

He said: “I visited New York last year”

Present Perfect

He said: ” I‘ve lived here for a long time ”

Past Perfect

He said: “They had finished the work when I arrived

Past Progressive

He said: “I was playing football when the accident occurred

Present Perfect Progressive

He said:”I have been playing football for two hours.”

Past Perfect Progressive

He said: “I had been reading a newspaper when the light went off

Future Simple (will+verb)

He said: “I will open the door.”

Conditional (would+verb)

He said: “I would buy Mercedes if I were rich”

 

Past Perfect Simple

He said that he had visited New York the previous year.

Past Perfect

He said that he had lived there for a long time

Past Perfect

He said that they had finished the work when he had arrived

Past Perfect Progressive

He said that he had been playing football when the accident had occurred

Past Perfect Progressive

He said that he had been playing football for two hours

Past Perfect Progressive

He said that he had been reading a newspaper when the light had gone off

Conditional (would+verb)

He said that he would open the door.

Conditional (would+verb)

He said that he would buy Mercedes if he had been rich”

 

  1. Thay đổi trạng từ chỉ thời gian và nơi chốn (Nếu có) (nếu V tường thuật ở quá khứ).

 

Direct Speech
Reported Speech
Time Expressions
today
that day
now then
yesterday
ago
last week
next year
tomorrow
here
this
these
 

the day before/ the previous day
…  before
the week before/ The previous week
the following year/ the next year
the next day / the following day
Place
there
Demonstratives
that
those

 

Ex: “ I met her yesterday” he said

  • He said that he had met her the day before.

“I’ll do it tomorrow” He promised

  • He promised that he would do it the following day.

Chú ý: Nếu động từ dẫn ở hiện tại, chỉ cần thay đổi quy tắc 1 (đổi S, O, P.adj)

“I met her yesterday” He says.

 He says he met her yesterday.

 

III. Câu hỏi trong lời nói gián tiếp.

Khi chuyển câu hỏi trực tiếp thành gián tiếp cũng  cần áp dụng qui tắc chuyển đổi trên, ngoài ra cần thay đổi:

  • Động từ tường thuật câu hỏi gián tiếp là asked/ wanted to know/ wondered ( tự hỏi)
  • Trật tự từ chuyển về dạng trần thuật tức là chủ ngữ đứng trước động từ và không có trợ động từ
  • Không dùng liên từ “that’, dấu “?” được bỏ đi

1.Yes/No questions.

 

S + asked + ( O ) + if / whether + clause

Ex1: “ Are you ready?” He asked me.

QT1: He asked me/ wanted to know IF/WHETHER S + V

QT2: I was ready

QT3: adv

He asked me/ wanted to know IF/WHETHER I was ready.

Ex2: “Did you go out last night?” He asked her.

 He asked her whether she had gone out the previous night. 2.WH- Questions.

S + asked + (O) + wh – word + clause

“When will you be ready?” He asked me. He asked me when I would be ready.

“When did you finish work last night?” He asked her.

 He asked her when she had finished the previous night.

BÀI TẬP 1

  1. “Do you want to see the Cathedral?”

 

  1. “Do you mean working on the night shifts?” She asked.

 

  1. “Can you play any musical instrument?” The musician asked the girl.

 

  1. “Have you ever seen an UFO?” He asked me.

 

  1. “Did you go anywhere the day before yesterday?” The policeman asked the man.

 

  1. “Will it be alright if I come in a little late tonight?” the aupair girl asked me.

 

  1. “Did any of you actually see the accident happen?” The policeman asked.

 

  1. “Are you going anywhere tomorrow night?” He asked her.

 

 

BÀI TẬP 2

  1. “who did you give the money to?” Jane asked.

 

  1. “what did you miss most when you were in prison?” Mary asked the ex. convict

 

  1. “How offen do you go shopping?” the woman asked the girl.

 

  1. “Why are you so late?” said the teacher “the lesson started half an hour ago”.

 

  1. “where are you going for yoủ holiday this summer?” He asked me.

 

  1. “who has been using my typewriter?” said my mother.

 

 

BÀI TẬP 3 (luyện thêm)

  1. “What is her name ?”, Bill asked me.

 

  1. “Why did they do that ?”, he wondered.

 

 

  1. He said, “Where does she live ?”

 

  1. “What time does the film begin ?”

 

 

  1. “Shall I wait for them or go on ?”, he wondered.

 

KEY

BÀI TẬP 1

  1. He asked me IF I wanted to see the Cathedral.
  2. She asked me whether I meant working on the night shifts.
  3. The musician asked the girl if she could play any musical instrument.
  4. He asked me if I had ever seen an UFO.
  5. The policeman asked the man if he had gone anywhere 2 days before.
  6. The aupair girl asked me if it would be alright if she came in a little late that night.
  7. The policeman asked us if any of us had seen that accident happen.
  8. He asked her if/whether she was going anywhere the following night.

BÀI TẬP 2

  1. Jane asked me whom I had given the money to.
  2. Mary asked the ex. convict what he had missed most when he had been in prison.
  3. The woman asked the girl how offen she went shopping.
  4. the teacher asked him why he was so late and said that/ added that the lesson had started half an hour before.
  5. He asked me where I was going for my holiday that summer.
  6. My mother asked us who had been using her typewriter.

BÀI TẬP 3 (luyện thêm)

  1. Bill asked me what her name was.
  2. He wondered why they had done that.
  3. He asked her where she lived.
  4. He wanted to know what time the film began.
  5. He wondered whether he should wait for them or go on.

 

Bài 2

I. Các trƣờng hợp không lùi thì động từ.
  1. Khi c©u trùc tiÕp diÔn t¶ mét ch©n lý hay mét hµnh ®éng ®-îc lÆp ®i lÆp l¹i th-êng xuyªn theo thãi quen ë hiÖn t¹i.

My teacher said, “The earth rises in the east”.

 My teacher said that the earth rises in the east.

She said, “I get up at 5 o‟clock every morning”.

She said that she gets up at 5 o’clock every morning.

  1. Câu điều kiện loại 1 2

Lời nói trực tiếp là câu điều hiện loại 1 thì được chuyển sang loại 2 ở lời nói gián tiếp The advertisement said; “If you answer the questions correctly, you may win one million dollar”

The advertisement said that I might win one million dollar If I answered the questions correctly. 

  1. Câu trực tiếp có dạng câu điều kiện loại 2 hoặc loại 3 không lùi thì. She said to me “If I had enough money, I‟d buy a new bicycle”
    • She said to me that if she had enough money, she‟d buy a new bicycle.
  2. Mệnh đề sau “Wish” không lùi thì. He said “I wish I had a lot of money” He said he wished he had a lot of money
  3. Mệnh đề sau “ would rather” Không lùi thì. She said “I‟d rather you stayed at home”
    • She said to /told me that she would rather I stayed stayed at home.
  4. Không thay đổi thì của mệnh đề sau “It’s (high/ about) time”

She said; “It‟s about time you went to bed, children”

She told her children that It was time they went to bed.

  1. Động từ trong câu nói trực tiếp có thời gian xác định: He said, “I was born in 1980”

He said that he was born in 1980.

  1. Ôn tập các dạng câu gián tiếp

Tóm tắt                                                             Câu gián tiếp (reported speech)

  1. Statements S + V1( said) + (that) + S2+ V2+( ADV of time/ place)

(Câu phát biểu)                        2.S + V1( told )+ O1 + (that) + S2+ V2+( ADV of time/ place)

  1. Wh-questions S + asked + (O) + wh-…  + clause (S+V)

(Câu hỏi nội dung)           2.S + wondered + wh-…  + clause (S+V)

3.S + wanted to know + wh-… + clause (S+V)

 

C.Yes-no questions(Câu hỏi có không) 1.      S + asked + (O) + if / whether + clause (S+V)

2.      S + wondered + if /whether + clause (S+V)

3.      S + wanted to know + if / whether + clause(S+V)

D.TO- INF 1.      S +  Ordered, asked, told, requested +  sb + (not) +  to   infinitive  “Please wait for a munite” the man akked me.

è The man told me to wait for a munite. “Would you mind opening the door for me” He asked me to open the door for him.

“Please don‟t talk in class”

è The teacher asked me not to talk in class.

2.      To- INF: advise, invite, warn, persuade…

“Would you/ could you/will you/ can you open the door for me?” He asked me to open the door for me.

“Would you like to go out for a drink”, He said. He invited me to go out for a drink.

“ you should/ „d better …”= “If I were you, I‟d…”

“If I were you, I would go to the zoo this Sunday” He advised me to go to the zoo that Sunday.

3.      Remember to…/Don’t forget to V: nhớ là phải làm gì nhắc nhở Remind sb to do smth: nhắc ai làm gì.

She said to me “don‟t forget to ring me up tomorrow evening” He reminded me to ring her up the following evening.

4.      Agree to V: đồng ý làm gì

“Alright, Of course, Certainly, …” Agree

“Alright, I‟ll help you” he said He agreed to help me.

5.      Want sb to V: muốn ai làm gì

“Would you like/want sb to do sth..” “ I‟d like him to clean the floor” She said. She wanted him to clean the floor.

6.      Refuse to V: từ chối làm gì

“I won‟t help you” she said. She refused to help me.

7.      Promise to V: Hứa làm gì

“ I‟ll send you a gift on your birthday” He said He promised to send me a gift on my birthday.

 

E.GERUND 1.      Dream of, object to, insist on, complain about, prevent sb from/ stop sb from/ congratulate on

“I‟ll help you with your exercises” He said to Ann He insisted on helping Ann with her exercises.

2.      Cảm ơn, xin lỗi: 

S + thanked  + sb + for + v-ing

S + apologized for + (not) + v-ing

S + apologized + to + s.o + for + (not) + v-ing

“It was nice of you to help me. Thank you very much” Tom said to Ann Tom thanked Ann for helping him.

“I‟m sorry, I‟m late” Peter said.

è Peter apologized for being late.

3.      Đề nghị, gợi ý:

S + suggest + (not) + V-ing …

S1 + suggest (ed) + That + S2 +    should + bare infinitive

He said to me; “Let‟s go home”

è He suggested going home

è He suggested that we should go home

“Let‟s go out for a drink,” Susan said.

è Susan suggested going out for a drink.

* Lời  đề nghị, gợi ý thường bắt đầu bằng:

•     Could

•     Shall we ….

•     What about …/ How about V-ing…/ Let‟s V……./ Why don‟t we V ….

Susan asked Peter “Why don‟t you go home now”

è Susan suggested that Peter should go home then.

è Susan suggested Peter‟s going home then.

 

III. Bài tập
  1. Change these sentences into reported speech.
  2. Mary said : “My father died a year ago”.
  3. “Must you go now?”, said Mr. Brown.
  4. John said : “I have finished studying my lesson”.
  5. He asked me : “Why didn‟t you come to class yesterday?”
  6. “Remember to buy some sugar”, my mother said.

 My mother asked

  1. He said : “If I were you, I would tell her about that”

He advised………………………………………………………………

  1. “Don‟t take more than two of these at once”, said the doctor.

The doctor asked……………………………………………………………………

  1. The traveler asked : “How long does it take you to get to London?”
  2. “Did you phone me yesterday?” Tom asked Mary.
  3. “Would you like to have dinner with us tonight,” Mike said.

 Mike invited……………………………………………………………………………….

  1. “ Why don‟t you organize an English competition for our students?” said Ms Lien.

Ms Lien suggested…………………………………………………………………………

  1. “ You won the scholarship. Congratulations!” Mary told me.

 Mary congratulated ………………………………………………………………………..

  1. “ You were cheating” said David to Henry.

David accused ………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. “ It was kind of you to help me with my homework” Lan said to Hoa.

Lan thanked …………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. “ I‟m sorry I‟m late, said Mr Thanh.

Mr Thanh apologized………………………………………………………………………..

   

KEY

Change these sentences into reported speech.

  1. Mary said that her mother had died a year before.
  2. Mr Brown asked whether/ If I had to go then.
  3. John said he had finished studying his lesson.
  4. He asked me why I hadn‟t come to class the previous day/ the day before.
  5. My mother asked me to buy some sugar.
  6. He advised me to tell her about that.
  7. The doctor asked not to take more than two of them at once.
  8. The traveler asked how long it took me to get to London.
  9. Tom asked Mary whether/ if she had phoned him the day before/ the previous day.
  10. Mike invited me to have dinner with them that night.
  11. Ms Lien suggested organizing an English competition for their students.
  12. Mary congratulated me on winning the scholarship.
  13. David accused Henry of cheating.
  14. Lan thanked Hoa for helping her with her homework.
  15. Mr Thanh apologized for being late.

 

 

 

Bài 3

1. Lời nói gián tiếp trong câu cảm thán

What + (adj + N)/ (a/an + adj + N) How + adj/adv + S + V (be/V thường)

Exlaimed that: thốt lên

“What a lovely dress!” She said

  • She exclaimed that it was a lovely dress

“How beautiful she is!” He said

  • He exclaimed that she was beautiful.

“How quickly he runs!” She said

  • She exclaimed that he ran quickly.
2. Lời nói gián tiếp trong câu chúc

“Good luck!” He said to me

  • He wished me good luck. “Congratulation!”
  • He Congratulated me.
3. Lời nói gián tiếp trong câu chào

The notice says “welcome to Vietnam”

  • The notice welcomes visitors to Vietnam

“Good morning”; “Hello”   He greeted me.

4. Bài tập

Choose the word or phrase (A, B, C or D) that best completes each sentence

  1. Jack asked me _____.

A.where do you come from?    B.where I came from           C.where I came from              D.where did I come from?

  1. She asked me _____ I liked pop music.

A.when                                B.what                                     C.if                                     D.x

  1. The doctor ____ him to take more exercise.

A.told                                  B.tell                                       C. have told                       D. are telling

  1. I wanted to know_____ return home.

A.when would she               B. when will she                     C. when she will   D. when she would

  1. Claire told me that her father____ a race horse.

A.owns                                B.owned                                  C. owning                          D. A and B

  1. What did that man say ______?
    1. at you for you        C. to you          D. you
  2. I rang my friend in Australia yesterday, and she said it _______ raining there.
    1. is were            C. has been     D. was
  3. The builders have ______ that everything will be ready on time.
    1. promised promise       C. promises    D. promising
  4. The doctor _______ him to take more exercise.
    1. told tell   C. have told                 D. are telling
  5. The last time I saw Linda, she looked very relaxed. She explained she’d been on holiday the ______ week.
        A. ago                                  B. following                             C. next

11.Yesterday, Laura ______ him to put some shelves up.

D. previous
        A. asked                               B. is asking                              C. ask

12.Tom has ______ this story wasn’t completely true.

D. was asked
       A. admitting that                B. was admitted that               C. admitted that

13.When I rang Tessa some time last week, she said she was busy ______ that day.

 D. admit that
        A. that                                 B. the                                      C. then

14.I wonder _____ the tickets are on sale yet.

D. this
        A. what                                B. when                                   C. where

15.Mathew _____ Emma that her train was about to leave.

D. whether
       A. has reminded                 B. has reminded that               C. reminded

16.Hello, Jim. I didn’t expect to see you today. Sophie said you _____ ill.

D. reminded that
        A. are                                  B. were                                    C. was

17.Ann ______ and left.

 D. should be
       A. said goodbye to me        B. says goodbye to me            C. tell me goodbye

18.I told you ______ to switch off the computer, didn’t I ?

D. told me goodbye
        A. don’t                               B. not                                       C. not to

19.Bill was slow, so I  ________ hurry up.

D. to not
        A. tell him                           B. told him for                         C. told to D. told him to
20.Sarah was driving to fast, so I  ______ to slow down.
       A. asked her                        B. asked                                   C. ask

21.Someone ______ me there’s been an accident on the motorway.

 D. have asked her
        A. asked                               B. said                                     C. spoke

22.Sue was very pessimistic about the situation. I advised her _____.

D. told
        A. no worry                         B. not worry                            C. no to worry

23.I couldn’t move the piano alone, so I asked Tom_______.

D. not to worry
       A. giving a hand                  B. gave a hand                        C. to give a hand

24.Tom said that New York _______ more lively than London.

D. give a hand
        A. is                                     B. be                                        C. was

25.When he was at Oliver’s plat yesterday, Martin asked if he ______ use the phone.

D. were
        A. can                                  B. could

26.George couldn’t help me. He ______ me to ask Kate.

C. may D. must
        A. tell                                   B. said

27.Judy ______ going for a walk, but no one else wanted to.

C. told D. say
       A.admitted                          B. offered

28.I said that I had met her ______ .

C. promised  D. suggested
       A. yesterday                        B. the previous day

29.The man asked the boys ______ .

C. the day D. the before day.
       A. why did they fight B. why they were fighting
       C. why they fight

30.“______the door”, he said.

D.why were they  fighting
       A. please open                    B. open pleased

31.I wanted to know ______ return home.

C. please to open             D. please, opening
       A. when would she              B. when will she

32.The woman wonders _______ doing well at school.

C. when she will               D. when she would
      A. whether her children are B. if her children were
      C. whether her children were

33.Peter said he was leaving for Paris ______.

D. her children are if
        A. next week                       B. the week previous C. following week   D. the following week

34.“I don’t usually drink milk when ______ ” Mrs. Pike said.

       A. she was hungry               B. I was hungry

35.They said that their house had been broken into ______.

C. I am hungry D. I will be
       A. the two days before        B. two days ago

36.She advised me _______ an apple everyday to stay healthy.

C. two days before D. since two days
        A. eating                             B. I should eat

37.“I’ll come with you as soon as _______” she replied.

C. to eat D. please, eat
        A. I was ready                     B. I am ready

38.“_____ today as it was yesterday.” She remarked.

C. I ready    D . am I ready
       A. it wasn’t so foggy B. it isn’t so foggy
       C. it hadn’t been  so foggy

39.“I wish _____ eat vegetables”, he said.

D. it isn’t such foggy
       A. my children will B. my children would
      C. whether my children would

40.“I _____ late again”, she promised.

D. my children must
        A. I am not                           B. I won’t be C. I wouldn’t D. I was not late
  1. “Could you tell me how to get to the airport?”
    1. he asked me how to get to the airport he said if I could tell him the airport
    2. he told me how to get to the airport D. he asked me to tell how to get to the airport
  2. “Have you heard of her marriage?” A. she asked me if I hear of their marriage
    1. she asked me whether I had heard of their marriage
    2. she asked me if I had heard of their marriage
    3. B and C
  3. Cindy said that “I haven’t seen John since last month.”
    1. Cindy said she hasn’t seen John since the previous month
    2. Cindy said she hadn’t seen John since the previous month C. Cindy said she wasn’t seen John since the previous month D.

Cindy said she doesn’t see John since the previous month

  1. The little boy said “two and two make four.”

A.The little boy said that two and two made four. B.The little boy said that two and two have made four. C.The little boy said that two and two had made four. D.The little boy said that two and two make four.

  1. “If I were you, I would go to the doctor. ”Minh said to Lan.
    1. Minh told Lan to become a doctor
    2. Minh advised Lan to go to the doctor
    3. Minh told Lan that he would to go to the doctor
    4. Minh advised Lan not to go to the doctor
  2. His wife said to him: “write to me as often as you can”
    1. His wife told him to write to her as often as he can
    2. His wife told him to write to her as often as he could
    3. His wife told him writing to her as often as he could
    4. His wife told him writing to her as often as he can
  3. “What were you doing last night, Mr John?” asked the police.
    1. The police asked what were you doing last night, Mr John
    2. The police asked Mr John what he had been doing the night before C. The police asked Mr John what he had been done the night before D. The police asked Mr John what had he been done the night before
  4. The teacher advised us .
    1. to be careful when doing these exercises be careful when doing these exercises
    2. careful when doing these exercises D. are careful when doing these exercises
  5. She told me .
    1. think well before I answered think well before I answer C. to think well before I answered                                     D. think well before I will answer
  6. He begged them ————–.
5. Bài tập (luyện thêm)
  1. help him should help him                    C. to help him                      D. help to h

 

Chuyển những câu sau sang gián tiếp.

  1. “Shall I help you with the exercises?” he said.
  2. “Shall we give him a birthday cake?” he said.
  3. “Could I leave early on Friday?” he said.
  4. “Where shall we meet tonight?” she said.
  5. “Will you have a drink?” he said.
  6. “How far is it from here to college?” he said.
  7. “Do you often have breakfast at 6.30 a.m?” he said
  8. “Don’t swim too far, boys” she said.
  9. “Do come in and have a drink” he said.
  10. “Remember to wake me up” she said. 11. “If I were you, I would learn English”, she said.

 

  1. “Why don’t we go camping this Sunday?” he said. 13. “Would you like to come to my birthday party next Sunday?” she said.
  2. “Let’s have a talk on the new film”, he said.
  3. “ Shall I do the cleaning up for you?” he said.
  4. “What a clever boy!” she said.
  5. “How ugly!” he said.
  6. “Did you prepare your meal?” he said. “No” I said. 19. “Happy birthday”, he said.
  7. “Take your seat”, he said. “thank”, I said.
KEY

Bài tập ()
1.      B

2.      C

3.      A

4.      D

5.      B

6.      C

7.      D

8.      A

9.      A

10.  D

11.  A

12.  C

13.  A

14.D

15. C

16.B

17.A

18.  B

19.  D

20.  A

21.  D

22.  D

23.  C

24.  C

25.B

26.  C

27.  D

28.  B

29.  B

30.  A

31.  D

32.  A

33.  D

34.  C

35.  C

36.  C

37.  B

38.  B

39.  B

40.  B

41.  A

42.  D

43.  B

44.  D

45.  B

46.  B

47.  B

48.  A

49.  C

50.  C

Bài tập (luyện thêm) 

1.He offered to help me with the exercises.

  1. He suggested that they should give him a birthday cake.
  2. He asked if he could leave early on Friday.
  3. She asked where they would meet that night.
  4. He offered me a drink.
  5. He asked how far it was from there to college.
  6. He asked me if I often had breakfast at 6.30.
  7. She warned the boys not to swim too far.
  8. He invited me to come in and have a drink.
  9. She reminded me to wake her up.
  10. He advised me to learn English.
  11. He suggested going camping that Sunday.
  12. He invited me to come to his birthday party the following Sunday.
  13. He suggested having a talk on the new film.
  14. He offered to do the cleaning up for me.
  15. She said that the boy was clever.
  16. He gave an exclamation of horror.
  17. He asked whether I had prepared the meal and I said I hadn’t.
  18. He wished me happy birthday.
  19. He told me to take my seat and I thanked him.

 

 

Bài 4

 

I. Hướng dẫn cách làm bài tập trắc nghiệm
  1. Nhận biết đáp án sai và loại trực tiếp: A. Dựa vào thì của động từ:
  • Nếu nhận biết được đó là 1 câu gián tiếp mà có đáp án liên quan tới thì hiện tại (hiện tại đơn, hiện tại tiếp diễn, hiện tai hoàn thành) hoặc tương lai (tương lai đơn, tương lai gần) thì sẽ loại trực tiếp đáp án đó.
  • Nếu đó là 1 câu hỏi thì có thể loại trực tiếp những đáp án có trợ động từ đảo lên trước chủ ngữ. I said to Nick: “Where are you going?”
  1. I asked Nick where was he going. B. I asked  Nick where he was going.
  2. I asked Nick where is he going. D. I asked  Nick where he is going.

Phân tích: đây là câu hỏi chuyển sang gián tiếp nên có thể loại trực tiếp đáp án A, C, D do đã đảo trợ động từ lên trước chủ ngữ (A, C) và sử dụng thì động từ không phù hợp (D).

  1. Dựa vào trạng từ: nếu có những đáp án không phù hợp về trạng từ thì cũng loại trực tiếp (trong câu gián tiếp không thể có các trạng từ như: today, yesterday, tomorrow, here, now, last……..)

 “I wrote to him yesterday”

  1. She said to me I wrote to him the day before.
  2. She told me she wrote to him yesterday.
  3. She told me she had written to him yesterday.
  4. She told me she had written to him the day before.

Phân tích: câu này có thể loại trực tiếp đáp án b, c do sử dụng trạng từ yesterday trong câu gián tiếp là không phù hợp.

  1. Dựa vào 1 số cấu trúc cố định: 1 số cấu trúc đi với to V/ Ving

Jamei: “ Don’t eat so much junk food !”

  1. Jamei reminded me not to eat so much junk food
  2. Jamei asked me to not eat so much junk food
  3. Jamei reminded me not to ate so much junk food
  4. Jamei says me not to eat so much junk food

Phân tích:  câu này có thể loại trực tiếp đáp án b, c do không đúng cấu trúc reminded/ asked sb not to V.

  1. Với những đáp án có thể đúng còn lại, học sinh tiếp tục xem xét và loại trừ dần để chọn ra đáp án đúng nhất.
  2. BÀI TẬP

Choose the best choice.

  1. He said he……………..at the “Ritz” Hotel.

A.is staying           B. has stayed                 C. was staying              D. will stay

 

  1. He asked me where I…………….
    1. have studied   study                       C.  am studying            D.  studied
  2. Tina asked me how long I……………..a teacher.
    1. have been had been                  C.  am                           D.  will be
  3. She asked me…………….I liked pop musiC.
    1. if   whether                   C.  that                          D.  A&B
  4. The students asked if I was going to teach them physics………………
    1. the next day   next day                  C.  day next                  D.  the day next
  5. John asked me in English.
    1. what does this word mean what that word means C. what did this word mean                                        D. what that word meant
  6. She said I an angel.
    1. am was                                    C. were                                   D. have been
  7. Laura said she had worked on the assignment since .
    1. yesterday two days ago                     C. the day before                  D. the next day
  8. John asked me interested in any kind of sports.
    1. if I were if were I                             C. if was I                               D. if I was
  9. John asked me that film the night before.
  10. that I saw B. had I seen                          C. if I had seen                      D. if had I seen
  11. “Go home,” said the teacher to us.
    1. The teacher told us to go home The teacher said us to go home C. The teacher told us go home                       D. The teacher told to us to go home
  12. “Please bring me some fish soup,” he said to the waitress. A. He asked the waitress bring him some fish soup.
    1. He asked the waitress to bring her some fish soup.
    2. He asked the waitress to bring him some fish soup.
    3. He asked the waitress bring her some fish soup.
  13. I said to Nick: “Where are you going?”
    1. I asked Nick where was he going.           I asked  Nick where he was going.
    2. I asked Nick where is he going. D. I asked  Nick where he is going.

 

  1. “You’d better apologise for being late,” said my mother.
    1. My mother advised me to apologise for being late.
    2. My mother suggested me to apologise for being late.
    3. My mother suggested apologising for being late.
    4. My mother warned me to apologise for being late.
  2. “Don’t open your books,” the teacher said to the pupils.
    1. The teacher told the pupils to not open their books.
    2. The teacher told the pupils did not open their books.
    3. The teacher told the pupils not open their books.
    4. The teacher told the pupils not to open their books.
  3. He said, “My wife has just bought a diamond ring.” A. He said that his wife had just bought a diamond
    1. He said that my wife had just bought a diamond ring.
    2. He said that his wife has just bought a diamond ring.
    3. he said that his wife just bought a diamond ring.
  4. “I will come with you as soon as I am ready”, she said to Philip.
    1. She said to Philip he will come to see you as soon as he I am ready.
    2. She told Philip she will come to see her as soon as she was ready.
    3. She told Philip she would come to see you as soon as she was ready.
    4. She told Philip she would come to see him as soon as she was ready.
  5. “I wrote to him yesterday”
    1. She said to me I wrote to him the day before.
    2. She told me she wrote to him yesterday.
    3. She told me she had written to him yesterday.
    4. She told me she had written to him the day before.
  6. “He is talking to your sister”, She said to me. A. She told me he was talking to your sister.
    1. She told me she was talking to my sister.
    2. She told me he was talking to my sister.
    3. She told me he was talking to her sister.

 

  1. Miss White said to him, “ Why are you so late? Did your car have a flat fire?”
    1. Miss White told him why was he so late and did your car have a flat fire
    2. Miss White asked him why was he so late and did your car have a flat fire.
    3. Miss White asked him why was he so late and if your car have a flat fire.
    4. Miss White asked him why he was so late and whether his car had a flat fire.
  2. . He said “If I had enough money, I could buy that dictionary.”
    1. He said if he had enough money, he could buy that dictionary
    2. He said if he had had enough money, he could buy that dictionary.
    3. He said if he had enough money, he could have bought that dictionary.
    4. He said if he had had enough money, he could have bought that dictionary.
  3. Tom: “ Why don’t you study hard for the coming exam, Ba”
    1. Tom advised me not to study hard for the coming exam
    2. Tom advised me to study hard for the coming exam
    3. Tom advised Ba not to study hard for the coming exam D. Tom advised Ba to study hard for the coming exam.
  4. He asked me what………………………………………..
  5. time was it B. time is it
  6. time it was D. none is correct.
  7. She asked me……..the seat………..or not
  8. If / had occupied             B. Whether / was occupied
  9. If / has been occupied           D. Whether / occupied
  10. The policeman asked us………..
    1. had any of us seen the accident happen.
    2. If had any of us seen the accident happen
    3. Whether any of us had seen the accident happen
    4. that if any of us had seen the accident happen
  11. I asked him………..,but he said nothing
  12. what the matter was B. what was the matter
  13. the matter was what D. what’s the matter was
  14. James………..him up when the bus reached the square
  15. told me wake                        B. asked me to wake
  16. said me to wake          D. requested me waking
  17. I wonder………….we’ll catch the bus………we’ll take a taxi
A. if / and whether B. whether / or that
                     C. if / or that

29. Excuse me. Could you tell me………………?

D. whether / or whether
A. what time is it B. what is the time
  1. what time it is           D. it is what time
  2. We wonder……….from his office after that scandal
  3. why did he not resign            B. why he did not resign
  4. why he not resign           D. why didn’t he resign
  5. Jeff wanted to know……………..
  6. that why were his friends laughing B. why were his friends laughing
  7. why his friends were laughing D. the reason why his friends laughing
  8. Mr Hawk told me that he would give me his answer the………..day
    1. previous following                 C. before                    D. last
  9. She…………him whether he liked the steak she cooked
    1. asks          wondered                C. wanted to know      D. asked
  10. His neighbours sometimes wondered……….he did for a living
    1. why                when                       C. where                      D. what
  11. Could you please tell me……………?
    1. It is how far to the nearest bus stop how far is it to the nearest bus stop
    2. how far to the nearest bus stop is it D. how far it is to the nearest bus stop
  12. Marigold wondered………..Kevin and Ruth would be at the party
    1. that whether                   C. if                             D. b& c
  13. He asked me…………….
    1. How long you have studied English. How long had you studied English
    2. How long you had study English D. How long you had studied English
  14. The passenger asked…………….we landed
    1. what when                      C. if                             D. why
    2. She said to me I wrote to him the day before.
    3. She told me she had written to him yesterday.
    4. She told me she had written to him the day before.
  15. “He is talking to your sister”, She said to me.
    1. She told me he was talking to your sister.
    2. She told me she was talking to my sister.
    3. She told me he was talking to my sister.
    4. She told me he was talking to her sister.
  16. “It is the time to check what you have done”, the father said to the boys.
    1. The father said to the boys it was time to check what they have done.
    2. The father told the boys it was time to check what they had done.
    3. The father told the boys it was time to check what they have done.
    4. The father told the boys it is time to check what they had done.
  17. “You will like my sister when you meet her”
    1. He told me you will like her sister when you meet her.
    2. He told me I will like his sister when I met her.
    3. He told me I would like his sister when I met her
    4. He told me I would be liked his sister when I met her.
  18. “I didn’t meet Susan last week”
    1. He said he didn’t meet Susan the week before.
    2. The boy told the girl he hadn’t broken  her watch.
    3. The boy asked the girl he hadn’t broken her watch.
    4. The boy told the girl he didn’t break her watch.
    5. The boy told the girl he hadn’t broken your watch.
  19. “I found a lot of mistakes in your plan”. Catherine said to Kevin.
    1. Catherine told Kevin she found a lot of mistakes in his plan.
    2. Catherine told Kevin she has found a lot of mistakes in his plan.
    3. Catherine told Kevin she had found a lot of mistakes in his plan.
    4. Catherine told Kevin she had found a lot of mistakes in her plan.
  20. “I have just seen your mother this morning”.
    1. Laura told Lewis I have just seen your mother this morning.
    2. Laura told Lewis she had just seen his mother that morning.
    3. Laura told Lewis she has just seen his mother that morning.
    4. Laura told Lewis he had just seen her mother that morning.
  21. “We are ready to come with our friends”
    1. They told us they are ready to come with their friends.
    2. They told us they were ready to come with our friends.
    3. They told us we were ready to come with our friends.
    4. They told us they were ready to come with their friends.
  22. “I couldn’t get into the house because I had lost my key”
    1. He said he couldn’t get into the house because he had lost my key.
    2. He said he hadn’t been able to get into the house because he had lost his key.
    3. He said he had been able to get into the house because he had lost his key.
    4. He said he hadn’t been able to get into the house because he lost his key.
  23. “I was intending to meet you tomorrow”.
    1. She told me she was intending to meet me tomorrow.
    2. She told me she had intending to meet me the next day
    3. She told me she had been intending to meet me tomorrow.
    4. She told me she had been intending to meet me the next day.
  24. “Don’t make noise because I am listening music now”
    1. He asked me not to make noise because I am listening music now
    2. He asked me not to make noise because I was listening music then
    3. He asked me not to make noise because he was listening music then
    4. He asked me to make noise because I was listening music then
  25. Cindy said that “I haven’t seen John since last month.”
    1. Cindy said she doesn’t see John since the previous month.
    2. Cindy said she wasn’t seen John since the previous month.
    3. Cindy said she hasn’t seen John since the previous month.
    4. Cindy said she hadn’t seen John since the previous month
    5. Error Identification
  26. He said me if I had donemy

A        B           C       D

  1. They wanted to knowhow muchcould you pay for

A                    B             C              D

  1. You promised you will go on a picnic with us the next Sunday

A                B                           C              D

  1. They asked me what didhappen last night, but I was unable to tell

A                       B                              C                           D

  1. Ron saidthat he wasn’t sure, but the storm maystop

A    B           C                                          D

 

Ôn tập

I. Bài tập

Exercise 1: Rewrite following sentences so that the meaning stay the same.

1.”If I were you,I wouldn’t buy this car”

àHe advised……………………………………………………………………………………………………

2.”Shall I carry your suicase,Lan?”said Nam.

àNam offered………………………………………………………………………………………………..

3.”Yes,all right,I’ll share the food with you,Dave.”

àAnn agreed…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

4.”Sue,can you remember to buy some bread?”

àPaul reminded………………………………………………………………………………………………………

5.”Don’t touch anything in this room”,the man said to the children.

àThe man ordered……………………………………………………………………………………………………

6.”I must go home to make the dinner”,said Mary.

àMary……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

7.”Are you going to Ho Chi Minh City next week?”Tom asked me.

àTom asked………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

8.”Have you finished your homework?”Mom asked.

àMom asked if…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

9.She said to me:”I can’t do it by myself”

àShe told me that……………………………………………………………………………………………………..

10.”Does your brother live in London,Nam?”Lan asked.

àLan wanted to know if…………………………………………………………………………………………..

11.”Don’t repeat this mistake again.”his father warned him.

àHis father warned him………………………………………………………………………………………….

12.”Give me a smile,”The photographer said to me.

àThe…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

13.”Don’t leave these book on the table” ,the librarian said to the students                                                                                 àThe librarian told the students…………………………………………………………………………………….

14.”Have you travelled abroad much?”he asked me.

àHe………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

15.”Who has written this note?” the boss asked the secretary.

àThe boss asked………………………………………………………………………………………………………

16.”I have just received a postcard from my sister,”my friend said to me.

àMy friend told me…………………………………………………………………………………………………

17.”This story happened long ago”he said.

àHe said…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Exercise 2

  • “Will it be safe to stay in the mountains for the night if the weather doesn’t change for the better?” we asked the guide.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  • The porter said to me, “I’ll wake you up, when the train arrives in Leeds.”

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  • My wife said to me: “While you are away, I’ll do the packing.”

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  • “Don’t leave until I phone you,” he asked me.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  • “After he leaves hospital, they’ll take him to the South,” the doctor said.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  • “They’ll wait for the fisherman to return until it gets dark,” the local man explained to me.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  • As soon as I hear from him, I’ll let you know,” my neighbour said to me.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  • I’ll live in town till my husband returns from the expedition and when he returns, we’ll go to the seaside together,” she said.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  • The mother said to her son, .”Sit still, please.”

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  • John said to his friend, “Come and spend a week with us.”

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Exercise 3

  • Tom said to the girl: “When did you have this picture taken?”
  • “Shall we go somewhere for a cup of coffee after class?” Tom said.
  • John said to Mary, “Why don’t you wear your hair a little longer.”
  • “Would you like another cup of tea?” the landlady said to the guest.
  • My sister said to me, “What about going to see Aunt Mary on Sunday?”
  • She asked me, “Have you ever seen a flying saucer?”
  • James said: “Do you want me to type this letter for you?”
  • Alfred said to John, “I didn’t use your cassette player! Someone else did, not me.”
  • Father said, “I was the superintendent while this school was being built”
  • The woman said, “If I had a gas stove, it would save me a lot of time.”

Exercise 4

  • Helen said, “I think I’ll have to find a better job. I can’t make both ends meet.”
  • He said to her “Why are you so late? I’ve been waiting for half an hour already.”
  • She said to him: “Don’t let them down. I’ll be very embarrassed if you go back on your words.”
  • She said to her husband: “You’d better not drink top much. You may lose control of the car and have a bad accident.”
  • The boy said to his mother: “When shall we have lunch? I’m very hungry.”
  • He said, “I don’t understand why she has refused to join us on the trip.”
  • She said to him, “I’m glad you’ve come. Sit down, please.”
  • Mr Brown said to his wife, “I don’t feel like going out this evening.” Let’s ask the Browns to come over for a chat.”
  • “It’s raining too hard to go out. We’d better stay home tonight and watch TV instead.” John said.
  • “Could you ring up the station and find out when the train comes in?” said Tom to me.
II. Bài tập tự luyện
  1. He said to her, “You are my friend.”
  2. Johnny said to his mother, “I don’t know how to do this exercise.”
  3. “ Don’t come back before one o’clock”, advised my brother.
  4. “Cook it in butter”, Mrs Brown said to her daughter.
  5. The pupils said “ Teacher, give us better marks, please.”
  6. My friend said, “ Are you going to leave tomorrow?”
  7. “ Have you done your homework?”, said my mother.
  8. I asked Bill,” What time did you go to bed last night?”
  9. Paul said, “ I must go home now.”
  10. “ There is an accident .”, said the policeman.
  11. “ We are waiting for the school bus”, said the children.
  12. “ Must you go now?”, said Mr Brown.
  13. “ Are you going to visit your aunt tomorrow?” asked Tom.
  14. “ Listen to me and don’t make a noise, ”said the teacher to his students.
  15. “ I’m tired of eating fish”, said Mary to Helen.

KEY

I. Bài tập

Exercise 1:

1.He advised me not to buy that car.

2.Nam offered to carry Lan’s suitcase.

3.Ann agreed to share the food with Dave.

4.Paul reminded Sue to buy some bread.

5.The man ordered the children not to touch anything in that room.

6.Mary said that she had to go home to make the dinner.

7.Tom asked me if/whether I was going to Ho Chi Minh City the next week/the following week.

8.Mom asked if I had finished my homework.

9.She told me that she couldn’t do it by herself.

10.Lan wanted to know if Nam’s brother lived in London. 11.His father warned him not to repeat that mistake again.

12.The photographer told me to give a smile.

  1. The librarian told the student not to leave those books on the table.

14.He asked me if I had travelled abroad much.

15.The boss asked the secretaty who had written that note.

16.My friend told me she had just received a postcast from his sister.

17.He said that story had happened long before

Exercise 2:

1.We asked the guide if it would be safe to stay in the mountains for the night if the weather didn’t changed for the better.

2.The porter told me he would wake me up when the train arrived in Leeds.

3.My wife told me that she would do the packing while I was away.

4.He told me not to leave until he phoned me.

5.The doctor said that after he left hospital they would take him to the South.

6.The local man explained to me that they would wait for the fisherman to return until it got dark.

7.My neighbour told me she would let me know as soon as she heard from him./

My neighbour promised to let me know as soon as she heard from him.

8.She said that she would live in town untilher husband returned from the expedition and that when he returned,they would go to the seaside together.

9.The mother told her son to sit still.

10.John asked/told his friend to come and spend a week with him.

Exercise 3:

1.Tom asked the girl when she had had the picture taken.

2.Tom suggested going somewhere for a cup of coffee after class.

3.John suggested that Mary should wear her hair  a little longer.

4.The landlady invited the guest to have another cup of tea.

5.My sister suggested us going to see Aunt Marry on the Sunday.

6.She asked me if I had ever seen a flying saucer.

7.James offered to type the letter for me.

8.Alfred denied using/having used John’s cassette player and said that someone else did.

9.Father said he had been the superintendent while that school was being built.

10.The woman said that if she had a gas stove it would save her a lot of time.

Exercise 4:

1.Helen said that she thought she would have to find a better job because she couldn’t make both ends meet.

2.He asked her why she was so late;he had been waiting for half an hour already.

3.She told/advised him not to let them down and added  that she would be very embarrassed if he went back on his words.

4.She advised her husband not to drink too much.He might lose control of the car and have a bad accident.

5.The boy asked his mother when they would have lunch and said he was very hungry.

6.He said he didn’t understand why she had refused to join them on the trip.

7.She told him she was very glad he had come and invited him to sit down

8.Mr Brown told his wife he didn’t feel like going out that evening and suggested asking the Browns to come over for a chat.

9.John said it was raining too hard to go out and suggested that they should stay at home and watch TV instead.

10.Tom asked me to ring up the station to find out when the train came in.

 

III. Bài tập tự luyện
  1. He said to her she was his friend.
  2. Johnny said to his mother he didn’t know how to do that exercise.
  3. My brother advised me not to come back before one o’clock.
  4. Mrs Brown told her daughter to cook it in butter.
  5. The pupils asked their teacher to give them better marks.
  6. My friend asked me if I was going to leave the day after.
  7. My mother asked me if I had done my homework.
  8. I asked Bill what time he had gone to bed the night before.
  9. Paul said that he had to go home then

10.The policeman said that there was an accident.

11.The children said that they were waiting for the school bus.

  1. Mr Brown asked me if I had to go then.
  2. Tom asked if I was going to visit my aunt the next day.
  3. The teacher asked his students to listen to him and not to make any noise.

15.Mary said Helen she was tired of eating fish.

 

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Gọi điện
Zalo
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