Phần XIII. Phân từ

Bài đọc nhiều cùng chuyên mục

Image result for phân từ trong tiếng anh

Bài 1

  1. HÌNH THỨC:
HIỆN TẠI PHÂN TỪ- PRESENT

PARTICIPLE

QUÁ KHỨ PHÂN TỪ- PAST PARTICIPLE
Nguyên mẫu + ing

Ví dụ: working, loving, sitting

 

§ Quá khứ phân từ của động từ có quy tắc được tạo thành bằng cách thêm đuôi ed hoặc d vào nguyên mẫu.

Ví dụ : worked, loved.

§ Các động từ bất qui tắc Ví dụ: Spent, built.

 

  1. CHỨC NĂNG CỦA PHÂN TỪ

I.ĐỂ TẠO THÀNH CÁC THÌ TRONG TIẾNG ANH

  1. HIỆN TẠI PHÂN TỪ- PRESENT PARTICIPLE Active:

Being P2: I am studying English

Having P2

  • Passive

Being P2: English is being spoken

Having been P2

  1. QUÁ KHỨ PHÂN TỪ- PAST PARTICIPLE
    • V-ed
    • Irregular Verbs NHƯ TÍNH TỪ:
V-ING + N Active ED/P2 + N Passive
§   Running water (nước đang chảy)

§   Floating wreckage (các mảnh thuyền vỡ nổi lềnh bềnh)

§   Dripping taps (vòi nước nhỏ giọt)

§   Leaking pipes (ống nước bị nứt, rò rỉ)

 

§   The updated news

§   Stolen money (tiền bị đánh cắp)

§   Broken glass (cái ly vỡ/ kính vỡ)

§   A written report (một bản báo cáo viết

tay)

§   Tired drivers (các tài xế mệt mỏi)

§   Blocked roads (các con đường bị kẹt/ phong tỏa)

     The film is interesting

(Chủ động- gây hứng thú)

The film interests me

     He is a boring man

(Chủ động- Người gây chán)

 He bores me

§   I am interested in the film

(Bị động- bị hứng thú)

 

§   I’m bored with him

(Bị động- Bị chán bởi Anh ấy)

III.RÚT GỌN HAI CÂU CÓ CÙNG CHỦ NGỬ

  1. HIỆN TẠI PHÂN TỪ – CHỦ ĐỘNG
    • Hành động diễn ra liên tục.

She opened the door. She saw him crying.

  • Opening the door, she saw him crying.
  • Nhấn mạnh dạng hoàn thành, xảy ra trước một hành động khác.

They finished their homework, they went out.

  • Having finished their homework, they went out.
  1. QUÁ KHỨ PHÂN TỪ- BỊ ĐỘNG

She was purnished by her father. She cried.

Purnished by her father, she cried.

  1. KHI ĐỘNG TỪ THỨ HAI LÀ MỘT PHẦN CỦA HÀNH ĐỘNG THỨ NHẤT, HOẶC LÀ HỆ QUẢ CỦA NÓ, CHÚNG TA CÓ THỂ DIỄN ĐẠT HÀNH ĐỘNG THỨ HAI BẰNG MỘT HIỆN TẠI PHÂN TỪ

She went out, slamming the door.

(Cô ta đi ra ngoài, đóng sầm cửa lại) 

He fired, wounding one of the bandits.

(Anh bắn một phát làm bị thương một tên cướp)

I fell, striking my head against the door and cutting it.

(Tôi té, va đầu vào cánh cửa và bị tét đầu) 

Note: Phân từ không cần thiết phải có cùng chủ từ với động từ thứ nhất.

The plane crashed,  its bombs exploding as it hit the ground.

(Chiếc máy bay rớt, bom của nó nổ tung khi nó chạm đất)

  1. MỘT HIỆN TẠI PHÂN TỪ THAY THẾ CHO MỆNH ĐỀ PHỤ

Hiện tại phân từ có thể thay thế cho cấu trúc:

As/ since/ because + chủ từ + động từ (= bởi vì) để giải thích cho hành động theo sau.

Knowing that he wouldn’t be able to buy food on his journey he took large supplies with him

(Biết rằng không thể mua thức ăn trong chuyến đi của mình được anh ta đem rất nhiều lương thực)

= As he knew…. (Vì anh ta biết….)

  1. RÚT GỌN MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ

1.CHỦ ĐỘNG V-ING

The man who is sitting over there is my father

The man sitting over there is my father

2.BỊ ĐỘNG  P2

Have you ever read any novel which was written by Marc Levy?

  • Have you ever read any novel written by Marc Levy?

The newspaper which was editted by Jane was well-known.

  • The newspaper editted by Jane was well-known.

C.BÀI TẬP LUYỆN

1.
 
Write the participles for the following verbs.
 
 
present participle
 
past participle
 
perfect participle
 
work
 
 
 
 
go
 
 
 
 
come
 
 
 
 
 

2.Decide which form is correct (present participle or past participle).

  1. The documentary was rather________________
  2. Everybody was _______________ to hear the news.
  3. ________________to New York, I met a_______________ TV presenter.
  4. ________________in the fifteenth century, this house is one of the oldest in this area.
  5. The children were sitting on the floor_______________ with their toys.

3.Rewrite the sentences replacing the italic part with a present participle.

  1. She was talking to her friend and forgot everything around her. →
  2. Since we watch the news every day we know what’s going on in the world. →
  3. They are vegetarians and don’t eat meat.

  1. The dog wagged its tail and bit the postman.

  1. While she was tidying up her room she found some old photos. →
  2. He was a good boy and helped his mother in the kitchen. →
  3. As they didn’t have enough money they spent their holidays at home last year. →
  4. The man was sitting in the cafe. He was reading a paper. →
  5. Since I didn’t feel well I didn’t go to the cinema.

  1. She walked home and met an old friend.

4.Rewrite the sentences replacing the italic part with a past participle.

  1. I have a cat that is called Tari.

  1. The dinner was more expensive than they had expected. →
  2. He was accused of murder and arrested.

  1. She was shocked by the bad news and burst into tears. →
  2. The event is organised by our team and will surely be a great success. →
  3. The film is based on real events and tells the story of a reporter. →
  4. She was born in Hollywood and knows all the famous movie stars.

  1. The car was taken to the garage. It was repaired within an hour. →
  2. She was admired by everyone and began to grow arrogant. →
  3. He was dumped by his girlfriend and felt really lousy.

KEY

1.Write the participles for the following verbs.

  present participle past participle perfect participle  
work Working Worked Having Worked
go Going Gone Having Gone
come Coming Come Having Come
2.Decide which form is correct (present participle or past participle).
  1. The documentary was rather interesting.
  2. Everybody was shocked to hear the news.
  3. Flying to New York, I met a well-known TV presenter.
  4. Built in the fifteenth century, this house is one of the oldest in this area.
  5. The children were sitting on the floor playing with their toys.

3.Rewrite the sentences replacing the italic part with a present participle.

  1. She was talking to her friend and forgot everything around her.

→ Talking to her friend she forgot everything around her.

  1. Since we watch the news every day we know what’s going on in the world.

→ Watching the news every day we know what’s going on in the world.

  1. They are vegetarians and don’t eat meat.

→ Being vegetarians they don’t eat meat.

  1. The dog wagged its tail and bit the postman. → Wagging its tail the dog bit the postman.
  2. While she was tidying up her room she found some old photos.

→ Tidying up her room she found some old photos.

  1. He was a good boy and helped his mother in the kitchen.

→ Being a good boy he helped his mother in the kitchen.

  1. As they didn’t have enough money they spent their holidays at home last year.

→ Not having enough money they spent their holidays at home last year.

  1. The man was sitting in the cafe. He was reading a paper.

→ The man was sitting in the cafe reading a paper.

  1. Since I didn’t feel well I didn’t go to the cinema.

→ Not feeling well I didn’t go to the cinema.

  1. She walked home and met an old friend.

→ Walking home she met an old friend.

4.Rewrite the sentences replacing the italic part with a past participle.

  1. I have a cat that is called Tari.

→ I have a cat called Tari.

  1. The dinner was more expensive than they had expected.

→ The dinner was more expensive than expected.

  1. He was accused of murder and arrested.

→ Accused of murder he was arrested.

  1. She was shocked by the bad news and burst into tears.

→ Shocked by the bad news she burst into tears.

  1. The event is organised by our team and will surely be a great success.

→ Organised by our team the event will surely be a great success.

  1. The film is based on real events and tells the story of a reporter.

→ Based on real events the film tells the story of a reporter.

  1. She was born in Hollywood and knows all the famous movie stars.

→ Born in Hollywood she knows all the famous movie stars.

  1. The car was taken to the garage. It was repaired within an hour.

→ Taken to the garage the car was repaired within an hour.

  1. She was admired by everyone and began to grow arrogant.

→ Admired by everyone she began to grow arrogant.

  1. He was dumped by his girlfriend and felt really lousy.

→ Dumped by his girlfriend he felt really lousy.

 

Bài 2

DANH ĐỘNG TỪ
 
GERUND (G)
 
PARTICIPLE (P1)
 
§
 
Làm chủ ngữ trong câu
 
S
)
(
 
Collecting stamps is my hobby.
 
§
 
Động từ
đi với danh động từ (V + G)
 
She enjoys watching cartoons
 
§
 
Sau giới từ (PREP + G)
 
I’m interested in watching films.
 
§
 
Đi với danh từ tạo thành danh từ ghép (G +
N)
 
Cooking oil (oil for cooking)
 
A reading lamp (lamp for reading)
 
§
 
Tạo thành các thì ( TENSES V)
 
I
am studying English
 
§
 
Đóng vai trò là ADJ trong câu: V
ing/P2 + N
 
Updated news
 
Leaking pipes
 
§
 
Rút gọn câu/mệnh đề
 
Washing his car, he sang happily.
 
The girl lending me this books is my best
friend.
 
 
B.
 
EXERCISES
 
 
 
 
 
o
 
 
 
I
 
Chọn đáp án thích hợp:
 
1
. Are you
(
interesting/ interested) in football?
 

A.PHÂN BIỆT DANH ĐỘNG TỪ VÀ PARTICIPLE (V-ING)

  1. The football match was quite (exciting/ excited). I enjoyed it.
  2. It’s sometimes (embarrassing/ embarrassed) when you have to ask people for money
  3. Do you usually get (embarrassing/ embarrassed) ?
  4. I had never expected to get the job. I was really (amazing/ amazed) when I was offer it.
  5. She has really very fast. She has made (astonishing/ astonished) progress
  6. I didn’t find the situation funny. I was not (amusing/ amused)
  7. It was a really (terrifying/ terrified) experience. Afterwards everybody was very (shocking/ shocked) 9. Why do you always look so (boring/ bored)? Is your life really so (boring/ bored)?
  8. He’s one of the most (boring/ bored) people I’ve ever met. He never stops talking and he never say anything (interesting/ interested)
  9. At first I thought Jake was an interesting/ interested guy, but tonight I felt somewhat boring/ bored with his company.
  10. She has really learnt very fast. She has made astonishing/ astonished progress.
  11. It was very disappointing/ disappointed not to get the job.
  12. Philip was exceptionally annoying/ annoyed at Joanne’s behaviour.
  13. I thought the program on wildlife was fascinating/ fascinated. I was absolutely fascinating/ fascinated.
  14. We were thrilling/ thrilled to hear your good news.
  15. It was really terrifying/ terrified experience. Afterwards everybody vv; very shocking/ shocked.
  16. The journey took all day and night. They found it very tiring/ tired.
  17. Did Tim feel frightening/ frightened when he saw the snake at his feet?
  18. Why do you always look so boring/ bored. Is your life really
  19. II) Hoàn chỉnh các câu trong mỗi tình huống. Dùng từ đã cho + “ing”, “ed” The film wasn’t as good as we had expected. (disappoint)
  20. The film was _____ .
  21. We were _____ with the film.
  22. Diana teaches young children. It’s a very hard job but she enjoys it.(exhaust)
  23. She enjoys her job but it is often _____ .
  24. At the end of a day’s work, she is often _____ .
  25. It’s been raining all day. I hate this weather. (depress)
  26. This weather is _____ .
  27. This weather makes me _____ .
  28. It’s silly to get _____ because of the weather.
  29. Clare is going to the United States next month. She has never been there before. (excite) a. It will be an _____ experience for her.
  30. Going to new places is always _____ .
  31. She is really _____ about going to the United States .

III) Hoàn chỉnh các câu sau với một trong những từ sau:

bored/ boring                          interested/ interesting            amused / amusing                  

exhausted/ exhausting            confused/ confusing               excited / exciting         surprised/ surprising

  1. He works very hard. It’s not _____ that he’s always tired.
  2. The teacher’s explanation was _____ . Most of the students didn’t understand it.
  3. I seldom visit art galleries. I’m not particularly _____ in art.
  4. The lecture was _____ . I fell asleep.
  5. I asked Emily if she wanted to come out with us but she wasn’t _____ .
  6. I’ve been working very hard all day and now I’m _____ .
  7. I’m starting a new job next week. I’m quite _____ about it.
  8. Tom is very good at telling funny stories. He can be very _____.
  9. I’ve got nothing to do. I’m _____ .
  10. Liz is a very _____ person. She knows a lot, she’s travelled a lot and she’s done lots of different things.

 

C.BÀI TẬP LUYỆN THÊM:

Viết lại các câu sau:

 

  1. Only a few of the movie that are shown at the Gray Theater are suitable for children.

  1. We visited Madrid, which is the capital of Spain.

  1. The couple who live in the house next door are both college professors.

  1. Astronomy, which is the study of planets and stars, is one of the world’s oldest sciences.

  1. Only a small fraction of the eggs that are laid by a fish actually hatch and survive to adulthood

6. None of the pedestrians who were walking up and down the busy street stopped to help
or even inquire about the elderly man who was slumped in the doorway of an apparently
unoccupied building.  
 

 

 

         

KEY

B- BÀI TẬP

I- Chọn đáp án thích hợp:

  1. Are you (interesting/ interested) in football?
  2. The football match was quite (exciting/ excited). I enjoyed it.
  3. It’s sometimes (embarrassing/ embarrassed) when you have to ask people for money
  4. Do you usually get (embarrassing/ embarrassed) ?
  5. I had never expected to get the job. I was really (amazing/ amazed) when I was offer it.
  6. She has really very fast. She has made (astonishing/ astonished) progress
  7. I didn’t find the situation funny. I was not (amusing/ amused)
  8. It was a really (terrifying/ terrified) experience. Afterwards everybody was very (shocking/ shocked) 9. Why do you always look so (boring/ bored)? Is your life really so (boring/ bored)?
  9. He’s one of the most (boring/ bored) people I’ve ever met. He never stops talking and he never say anything (interesting/ interested)
  10. At first I thought Jake was an (interesting/ interested) guy, but tonight I felt somewhat (boring/ bored) with his company.
  11. She has really learnt very fast. She has made (astonishing/ astonished) progress.
  12. It was very (disappointing/ disappointed) not to get the job.
  13. Philip was exceptionally (annoying/ annoyed) at Joanne’s behaviour.
  14. I thought the program on wildlife was (fascinating/ fascinated). I was absolutely (fascinating/ fascinated).
  15. We were (thrilling/ thrilled) to hear your good news.
  16. It was really (terrifying/ terrified) experience. Afterwards everybody vv; very (shocking/ shocked).
  17. The journey took all day and night. They found it very (tiring/ tired).
  18. Did Tim feel (frightening/ frightened) when he saw the snake at his feet?
  19. Why do you always look so (boring/ bored). Is your life really so (boring/ bored)?
  20. II) Hoàn chỉnh các câu trong mỗi tình huống. Dùng từ đã cho + “ing”, “ed” The film wasn’t as good as we had expected. (disappoint)
  21. The film was DISAPPOINTING.
  22. We were DISAPPOINTED with the film.
  23. Diana teaches young children. It’s a very hard job but she enjoys it.(exhaust)
  24. She enjoys her job but it is often EXHAUSTING .
  25. At the end of a day’s work, she is often EXHAUSTED . 3. It’s been raining all day. I hate this weather. (depress)
  26. This weather is DEPRESSING .
  27. This weather makes me DEPRESSED .
  28. It’s silly to get DEPRESSED because of the weather.
  29. Clare is going to the United States next month. She has never been there before. (excite)
  30. It will be an EXCITING experience for her.
  31. Going to new places is always EXCITING .
  32. She is really EXCITED about going to the United States .

III) Hoàn chỉnh các câu sau với một trong những từ sau:

bored/ boring                          interested/ interesting            amused / amusing                  

exhausted/ exhausting            confused/ confusing   excited / exciting        surprised/ surprising 1. He works very hard. It’s not SURPRISING that he’s always tired.

  1. The teacher’s explanation was CONFUSING . Most of the students didn’t understand it.
  2. I seldom visit art galleries. I’m not particularly INTERESTED in art.
  3. The lecture was BORING . I fell asleep.
  4. I asked Emily if she wanted to come out with us but she wasn’t INTERESTED .
  5. I’ve been working very hard all day and now I’m EXHAUSTED .
  6. I’m starting a new job next week. I’m quite EXCITED about it.
  7. Tom is very good at telling funny stories. He can be very AMUSING
  8. I’ve got nothing to do. I’m BORED .
  9. Liz is a very INTERESTING person. She knows a lot, she’s travelled a lot and she’s done lots of different things.

C.BÀI TẬP LUYỆN THÊM:

  1. Only a few of the movie shown at the Gray Theater are suitable for children.
  2. We visited Madrid, the capital of Spain.
  3. The couple living in house next door are both college professors.
  4. Astronomy, the study of planets and stars, is one of the world’s oldest sciences.
  5. Only a small fraction of the eggs laid by a fish actually hatch and survive to adulthood.
  6. None of the pedestrians walking up and down the busy street stopped to help or even inquire about the elderly man slumped in the doorway of an apparently unoccupied building.

 

 

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